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DUBAI (Reuters) - Some money exchange firms in the United Arab Emirates may have to merge and others could be forced to close as they struggle with rising capital and compliance costs and some banks refuse to do business with them the head of an industry body said. The UAE majority expatriate population transferred a net 66 billion dirhams ($18 billion) abroad in 2013 according to central bank data much of it through the estimated 120 exchange firms in the region main financial hub. But this year the industry has battled multiple headwinds. Money exchanges remitting money abroad were given two years from January to meet a new minimum capital requirement of 5 million dirhams imposed by the central bank posing a challenge for smaller players. Exchange houses are also increasingly expected to exercise greater scrutiny on their customers and the money they handle in a region considered a high risk for terror financing and money laundering. In May 2013 the U.S. treasury department prohibited dealings with Al Hilal Exchange for aiding Iranian attempts to circumvent international sanctions against Iran. Complying with capital and compliance regulations has added between 20 to 40 per cent to industry costs this year said Osama al-Rahma chairman of the Foreign Exchange & Remittance Group UAE. This is why I am expecting some [firms] will not be able to meet such huge operational costs especially if you add this along with inflation and cost of doing business he said. You might see consolidation and you might see exits. Some banks were also refusing to deal with exchange firms he said. This has made it tricky for them to access banking services they need to operate such as obtaining U.S. dollars. International banks have started pressurising local banks to do the same. The main issue behind it is de-risking said Rahma who is also CEO at Al Fardan Exchange. Many international banks have sought to cut risks in the region after several lenders including BNP Paribas and HSBC were found to have broken U.S. sanctions against Iran in recent years. Standard Chartered in October told thousands of small and medium-sized business customers in the UAE it was closing their accounts in response to pressure from U.S. authorities over anti-money laundering concerns. OKLAHOMA CITY (AP) — Gas has dropped below $2 a gallon at a handful of stations in Oklahoma and Texas this week a level that a price-watching group said Friday was the lowest in the nation and a bargain that is proven irresistible to some long lines of drivers coming from miles away to fill up. A station in Oklahoma City started the trend earlier this week at a new location as a way to thank residents who put up with construction. Two nearby stations followed suit becoming what Patrick DeHaan with GasBuddy.com said early Friday were the only ones in the United States with sub-$2 gas. A San Antonio Texas station also later dropped its price. When I first saw it I thought it was a misprint said Marcus Hendricks a student who lives in south Oklahoma City at the OnCue Express in southeast Oklahoma City where the price was $1.99 per gallon for gas with a 10 percent blend of ethanol. There were so many cars it looked they were giving something away for free. They practically are. The nationwide average for a gallon of gas was $2.71 Friday nearly $1 below this year peak of $3.70 in June. Gas has not been this cheap since October 2010. The decline has been driven by falling global oil prices as supplies are high. Benchmark U.S. crude oil fell 68 cents to $66.11 a barrel in New York on Friday after hitting $107 in June. Gas prices are expected to keep falling nationwide perhaps by as much as another 10 cents to 20 cents per gallon by the end of the year said AAA Oklahoma spokesman Chuck Mai. The statewide average in Oklahoma was $2.48 tied for third-lowest in the nation behind Missouri $2.43 average and Mississippi $2.47 AAA. The world is swimming in crude oil right now. And this of course is what is driving our pump prices in this country that and good old-fashioned street corner competition Mai said. It may not be a gas war but it certainly is one upsmanship or maybe in this case one downsmanship. OnCue Express in Oklahoma City first lowered its price to $1.99 earlier this week at the station that has been open about a month. We probably inconvenienced the neighbors during construction and we wanted to do something for them and we came up with this idea said Jim Griffith CEO of Stillwater-based OnCue Express. He said OnCue price will rise probably soon but that he is not losing money on the sales. I am not cutting a fat hog but I am making a small profit at that price Griffith said. At the OnCue Express employees used orange cones and hand signals to direct drivers who were backed up at about a dozen gas pumps in front of the store. Samantha Hitsman a stay-at-home mom said she drove about 20 miles from Del City to get gas. There is good news to report on health care in America. Obamacare has increased coverage by 10 million people spending growth has dramatically declined and preventable hospital errors such as drug mistakes fell 17 percent from 2010 to 2013 saving 50000 lives. In the U.S. at least it appears possible to increase efficiency cost-effectiveness and access all at the same time. The picture is less positive across much of the developing world. While the call for universal health care in every country is now the official stance of the World Health Organization attempts to meet that goal have often seen limited returns. The overwhelming focus on quantity of care is ignoring a massive problem with quality and efficiency. Unless that is addressed a lot of money will be spent on expanding access—with little impact. A World Bank review of extending universal health coverage in developing countries found that providing subsidized or free care did increase access to those services especially by the poorest people. Such schemes also reduced recipients out-of-pocket expenses associated with health care. There were also some successes related to health outcomes. Argentina Plan Nicer for example provided services to pregnant women and young children which was associated with a 2 percentage point reduction in early newborn mortality. Yet only five out of 18 studies of coverage roll-out found a positive impact on health indicators such as death rates or reduced sickness. In India for example the government has started paying mothers who deliver children in hospitals. As a result from 2005 to 2011 the number born in a health facility more than doubled in nine Indian states. But the massive increase in institutional births had no impact on infant mortality. If anything according to World Bank researcher Jishnu Das the rise of hospital births is remarkably consistent with the halting of a slow decline in infant mortality. Rwanda has seen a similar phenomenon: a big rise in births with a skilled attendant with no impact on health. Across countries there is no relationship between overall levels of health expenditures and health outcomes at a given income per head nor a link between health inputs such as doctors and nurses per capita and health outcomes. The number of hospital beds per person worldwide actually fell by a quarter from 1960 to 2005 even as global health massively improved—with average planetary life expectancy climbing from 52 years to 69 years. One reason for the gap between health inputs and health outcomes is the low quality of care. Though many health-care practitioners are hard working and honest a lot are not. In 2003 if you turned up unannounced to a health-care facility in India and asked to see a staff member 40 percent of staffers who were meant to be there were absent. Among doctors in rural Bangladesh in 2004 that figure was above 70 percent. And hospital staffers are often ignorant of the right approaches or face incentives to provide the wrong treatments. A 2013 survey in Kenya found that only a little over half of doctors and nurses could diagnose at least four out of five common conditions when their major symptoms were described—malaria with anemia diarrhea with dehydration pneumonia tuberculosis and diabetes. When it came to treatment health providers adhered to less than 43 percent of the clinical guidelines governing management of these conditions. Public providers only followed 44 percent of the guidelines for managing maternal and newborn complications. The lack of a relationship between the availability of health care and life expectancy in developing countries goes beyond weaknesses in hospitals and clinics. It is also related to the fact that what kills most people in poor countries are conditions that do not require hospitals to fix. In sub-Saharan Africa the five leading killers are malaria HIV lower respiratory infections diarrhea and malnutrition. Further and growing causes of mortality across the developing world include traffic accidents tobacco usage and health conditions related to being overweight. Clean water access to and use of toilets condoms soap vaccination, and and bed nets alongside better nutrition tobacco controls and road safety measures can prevent the majority of these deaths. Doctors and nurses save thousands of lives a day but infrastructure and public health interventions—neither requiring highly trained medical staff—save many millions each year. Often the medical system can do little more than provide palliative care when these other approaches are not used or do not work. This has been so tragic and it is way more than unsightly gut piles said Gardiner Montana resident Bonnie Lynn to the Bozeman Daily Chronicle. Lynn said the open Forest Service land near her property becomes a bloody mess every winter as bison head along Beattie Gulch to lower elevations—easy targets for hunters in waiting. This year we anticipate it will be way more than 185 (bison) killed on 5 acres in front of our driveway Lynn said. These animals should have a broader landscape and a safe and ethical hunt. I can understand the Native Americans desire to hunt but this is not respectful of the animal. For National Parks Conservation Association program manager Bart Melton the Park Service annual bison management program feels a little too much like Groundhog Day and not progress. We have been here before and we will likely be here again Melton told the National Parks Traveler. But some changes to the way park officials handle bison populations could be on their way. One option put out by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks Service looked at allowing bison onto almost 422000 acres of National Forest land with no cattle in the upper Gallatin Basin so the population could grow without severely damaging the area habitat. It is an option supported by environmentalists and bison lovers but opposed by ranchers fearful the large animals could decimate livestock feeding grounds. Coming from a ranching family I can see it from both sides. I can understand some of the concerns that ranchers have Kootenai wildlife manager Tom McDonald told the Bozeman Daily Chronicle. But what we really need to do is just allow bison to get out and express themselves on the landscape and over time through our diligence people can become accustomed to them on the landscape.